LENS Neurofeedback. Recopilación de referencias bibliográficas.

LENS: Scientific articles

LENS: Scientific Articles

Bibliographical references arranged by researcher


Following the discovery of the LENS – Low Energy Neurofeedback System – in the 1990s by Len Ochs PhD, almost thirty scientists have devoted their time to publishing in the written media their knowledge about this neurotherapy system.



In this article, I have arranged all the literature written to date (June 2017) about LENS and its predecessors – AVS and Flexyx – into alphabetical order by author: scientific articles, books, magazines, quotations, etc. Visit the updated 41 links to see the texts in pdf.



Bibliographical quotations by author



Brink, M. (2012). The Migraine Revolution. Robina, QLD, Australia: Body Mind & Brain.>More



Budzynski, T.H., Budzynski, H.K., Evans, J.R., and Abaranel, A. (2009.) Introduction to Quantitative EEG and Neurofeedback: Advanced Theory and Applications. (295-308). Burlington, MA: Elsevier Academic Press.>More



Cantor, D.S., Evans, J.R. (2014). Clinical Neurotherapy: Application of Techniques for Treatment. New York, NY: Academic Press.>More



Carter, J. L. and H. L. Russell (1981). Changes in verbal performance of IQ discrepancy scores after left hemisphere EEG frequency control training. American Journal of Clinical Biofeedback, 4: 66-68.



Carter, J. L. and H. L. Russell (1984). Application of biofeedback relaxation procedures to handicapped children: Final report. Washington, DC, Bureau of Education for theHandicapped.>More



Carter, J. L. and Russell, H. L. (1993). “A pilot investigation of auditory and visual entrainment of brain wave activity in learning disabled boys.” Texas Researcher 4: 65-73.>More



Collura, T.F., Frederick, J.A. (2016). Handbook of Clinical QEEG and Neurofeedback. New York, NY: Root-ledge>More



Cripe, C. (2007). Effective use of LENS unit as an adjunct to cognitive neurodevelopmental training. Journal of Neurotherapy 10(2-3), 79-87. >More



deNiet, P. (2011). The efficacy of LENS neurofeedback treatment for ADHD; (probably: a double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled study on adults with ADHD). – Publication will take place at the second half of 2011.The approval  is to find at a protected site from the Academic Medical Hospital from the city of Maastricht in the Netherlands (azM)



Donaldson, C.C.S., Nelson, D.V., et al. (1998). Disinhibition in the gamma motorneuron circuitry: a neglected mechanism for understanding myofascial pain syndromes. Applied Physiology & Biofeedback, 23, 43-58.



Donaldson, C.C.S., Sella, G.E., et al. (1998). Fibromyalgia: a retrospective study of 252 consecutive referrals. Canadian journal of Clinical Medicine, 5(6), 116-127.



Donaldson, C.C.S., Sella, G.E. & Mueller, H.H. (1998). Fibromyalgia: a retrospective study of 252 consecutive referrals. Canadian Journal of Clinical Medicine, 5(6), 116-127.



Donaldson, C.C.S., Sella, G.E., & Mueller, H. (2001). The neural plasticity model of fibromyalgia: theory, assessment, & treatment. Practical Pain Management , Part One, May/June.



Edmonds, W.A., Tenenbaum, G. (2012). Case Studies in Applied Psychophysiology. Neurofeedback and Biofeedback Treatments for Advances in Human Performance. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell.>More



Esty, M.L. (2007). Reflections on FMS treatment, research, and neurotherapy: cautionary tales. Journal of Neurotherapy, 10(2-3), 63-68. >More



LENS neurofeedback | Artículos científicos | Libro Handbook of Neurofeedback LENS neurofeedback | Artículos científicos | Libro QEEG and Neurofeedback LENS neurofeedback | Artículos científicos | Journal of Neurotherapy



Evans, J. (Ed.). (2007). Handbook of Neurofeedback: Dynamics and Clinical Applications. Binghamton, NY: The Haworth Medical Press.>More



Gillham, S., Wold, H., Bayer, Z., et al. (2012). Low energy neurofeedback system (LENS) for stress, anxiety, and cognitive function: an exploratory study. BMC  Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 12:1, 145. >More



Hallowell, E.M., & Jensen, P.S. (2010). Superparenting for ADD. New York, NY: Ballantine Books. 162-164.



Hammond, D.C. (2005). Neurofeedback to improve physical balance, incontinence, and swallowing. Journal of Neurotherapy, 9:1, 27-36. >More



Hammond, D.C., Editor (2007). LENS: the Low Energy Neurofeedback System. Binghamton, NY: The Hawthorne Medical Press.>More



Hammond, D.C. (2007). Can LENS neurofeedback treat anosmia resulting from a head injury?  Journal of Neurotherapy, 11(1), 57-62. >More



Hammond, D.C. (2008). Investigations in neuromodulation, neurofeedback and applied neuroscience. Clinical Corner. Journal of Neurotherapy. 11:3. >More



Hammond, D.C. (2010). LENS neurofeedback treatment of anger: preliminary reports. Journal of Neurotherapy, 14:2, 162-169. >More



Hammond. D.C. (2010). QEEG evaluation of the LENS treatment of TBI. Journal of Neurotherapy, 14:2, 170-177. >More



Hammond, D.C. (2011). What is neurofeedback: an update. Journal of Neurotherapy, 15:4, 305-336.>More



Hammond, D.C. (2011). LENS neurofeedback treatment with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder and neglect. Journal of Neurotherapy, 16:1, 47-52.>More



Hammond, D.C. (2012). Neurofeedback treatment of restless legs syndrome and periodic leg movements in sleep. Journal of Neurotherapy, 16:2, 155-163.>More



Hammond, D.C. & Baehr, E. (2009). Neurofeedback for the treatment of depression: current status of theoretical issues and clinical research.



Hammond, D.C., Harper, S.H., O’Brien, J., & Dogris, N. (2010). Advancements in the LENS treatment protocols. Neuroconnections, 20-23.



Hammond, D.C., S. Stockdale, et al. (2001). Adverse reactions and potential iatrogenic effects in neurofeedback training. Journal of Neurotherapy ,4(4), 57-69.>More



Cantor-clinical-neurotherapy Collura-handbook-clinical-qeeg edmonds-tenebaum-case-studies-neurofeedback-human-performance



Hengameh M., Hamid R.M, and Marjan M. (2016). Neurofeedback: A Comprehensive Review on System Design, Methodology and Clinical Applications. Basic Clinical Neuroscience. 2016 Apr; 7(2): 143–158. >Ver



Horowitz, S. (2006). Biofeedback applications: a survey of clinical research. Alternative and Complementary Therapies,12:6, 275-281.>More



Horowitz, S. (2012). Neurofeedback therapy in clinical applications and for cognitive enhancement. Alternative and Complementary Therapies. 18(5), 242-247.>More



Hunt Harper, S. (2009). Low energy neurofeedback system treatment of an acquired brain injury due to sudden cardiac arrest. Biofeedback, 37:3, 100-103.>More



Hutchison, M. (1994). Mega brain power: transform your life with mind machines and brain nutrients. Hyperion.



Journal of Neurotherapy (2006). Two volume journal set devoted to the topic of the LENS. 10:2-3, 1-104.



Kravitz, H.M., Esty, M.L., Katz, R.S., & Fawcett, J. (2006). Treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome using low-intensity neurofeedback with the flexyx neurotherapy system: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Journal of Neurotherapy, 10(2-3), 41-58.>More



Lanius, U., Milstein, S., & Ochs, L. (2015, April). Integration of neurofeedback into the standard EMDR protocol for the treatment of PTSD and/or attachment disorders: Case studies. Presentation at the EMDR Canada Annual Conference, Vancouver, BC>More



Larsen, S. (2001). The use of flexyx treatment modality with patients with multiple brain and spinal cord injuries. Future Health Winter Brain Conference. Miami, FL.



Larsen, S. (2006). The healing power of neurofeedback: The revolutionary LENS technique for restoring optimal brain function. Rochester, VT: Healing Arts Press.>More



Larsen, S. (2009). The special applicability of the low energy neurofeedback system form of neurofeedback to traumatic brain injury: The Theory, Biofeedback, 37(3), 104-107.>More



Larsen, S. (2012). The neurofeedback solution: How to treat autism, ADHD, anxiety, brain injury, stroke, PTSD and more. Rochester, VT: Healing Arts Press.>More



Larsen, S., Harrington, K., & Hicks, S. (2006). The LENS (low energy neurofeedback system): A clinical outcomes study of one hundred patients at Stone Mountain Center, New York. Journal of Neurotherapy, 10(2-3), 69-78.>More



Larsen, S., Larsen, R., Hammond, D.C., Sheppard, S., Ochs, L., Johnson, S., Adinaro, C., & Chapman, C. (2006). The LENS neurofeedback with animals. Journal of Neurotherapy, 10(2-3), 89-104.>More



Larsen, S., Larsen, R., et al. (2004). The LENS with animals: preliminary observations. International Society for Neuronal Regulation, National Conference. Ft. Lauderdale.



Larsen, S., & Sherlin, L. (2013). Neurofeedback: an emerging technology for treating central nervous system dysregulation. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 36:1, 1-Complementary and Integrative Therapies for Psychiatric Disorders.>More



LENS neurofeedback | Artículos científicos | Libro The Neurofeedback Solution LENS neurofeedback | Artículos científicos | Libro Low Energy Neurofeedback System foto Healing Power of Neurofeedback LENS neurofeedback | Artículos científicos | Libro MegaBrain



Marcus, L. (2001). EEG Amplitude and Variability Changes Following Low-Intensity Neurofeedback-Based Stimulation for Fibromyalgia. Palo Alto, CA, Western Graduate School of Psychology (Doctoral dissertation, Ph. D).



Miller, J.A. (2013). Breaking the bars: Sustainable recovery vs. incarceration(unpublished paper – contact redfeather7@earthlink.net for a copy).



Miller, J.A.(2013). Neurotherapy as an adjunct therapy for addiction solutions: Neurological recovery model (unpublished paper – contact redfeather7@earthlink.net for a copy).



Miller, J.A. (2013). Neurotherapy for sustainable addiction recovery: An integrated model. Paper presented at the annual ISNR International Society of Neurofeedback and Research Conference, Dallas, TX.



Miller, J.A. (2014). Low energy neurofeedback: A primary key to prescription medication dependence recovery (unpublished paper – contact redfeather7@earthlink.net for a copy).



Miller, J.A. (2014). Neurotherapy for Autism Spectrum Disorder Children (unpublished paper – contact redfeather7@earthlink.net for a copy).



Miller, J.A. (2014). LENS training for children with neurological dysfunction (unpublished paper – contact redfeather7@earthlink.net for a copy).



Miller, J.A. (2014). Nine functions of the prefrontal cortex: LENS training – dysfunctional  to functional (unpublished paper – contact redfeather7@earthlink.net for a copy).



Mueller, H.H., Donaldson, C.C.S., et al. (2001). Treatment of fibromyalgia incorporating EEG-driven stimulation: A clinical out-comes study. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 57(7): 933-952.>More



Nelson, D.V., Bennett, R. M., Barkhuizen, A., Sexton, G.J., Jones, K.D., Esty, M.L.,Ochs, L. and Donaldson, C.C.S. (2010), Neurotherapy of Fibromyalgia? Pain Medicine, 11: 912–919.>More



Nelson, D.V., Esty, M.L. (2009). Neurotherapy for pain in veterans with trauma spectrum disorders. Journal of Pain, 10:4, Supplement, S18.>More



Nelson, D.V., Esty, M.L. (2012). Neurotherapy of traumatic brain injury/posttraumatic stress symptoms in OEF/OIF veterans. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 24:2, 237-240.>More



LENS neurofeedback | Artículos científicos | Libro Migraine Revolution LENS neurofeedback | Artículos científicos | Libro A Symphony in the Brain LENS neurofeedback | Artículos científicos | Libro Superparenting for ADD LENS neurofeedback | Artículos científicos | Libro Coping with Concussion



Ochs, L. (1993a). New light on lights, sound, and the brain. Megabrain Reports: Journal of Clinical Psychology. 57(7), 933-952.



Ochs, L. (1993b). New light on lights, sound, and the brain. Megabrain Reports: Journal of Mind Technology 2: 48-52.



Ochs, L. (1996). Thoughts about EEG-Driven stimulation after three years of its uses: Ramifications for concepts of pathology, recovery, and brain function. Unpublished manuscript.



Ochs, L. (2007a). Comment on the treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome using low-intensity neurofeedback with the flexyx neurotherapy system: A randomized controlled clinical trial, or how to go crazy over nearly nothing. Journal of Neurotherapy, 10(2-3): 59-61.>More



Ochs, L. (2007b). The low energy neurofeedback system (LENS): theory, background and introduction. Journal of Neurotherapy, 10(2-3): 5-37.>More



Ochs, L. (2007c). Comment on neurofeedback overtraining and the vulnerable patient. Journal of Neurotherapy, 11(3), 67-71.>More



Ochs, L. (2010a). Underlying treatment Issues in neurofeedback as exemplified by treatment of seizure disorders. Journal of Neurotherapy, Spring, 29-33.



Ochs, L. (2010b). Working with latent and actual seizures. Journal of Neurotherapy, Summer. 30-32.



Ochs, L. (2014). A look at today’s LENS. NeuroConnections, Fall. (pending).



Ochs, L. & Berman, M. (1997). EDS: Background and operation. EEG-driven pico-photic stimulation. Walnut Creek, CA: Flexyx, LLC.



Robbins, J. (2008). Biology, Psychology, the Brain, and Quantum Physics: Neuroscience, Epigenetics, Energy Psychology, Quantum Physics, Eudaimonics, Buddhism, and the Brain. Measuring the immeasurable: The scientific case for spirituality (pp. 243-254). Boulder, CO: Sounds True.



Robbins, J. (updated 2013). A symphony in the brain: The evolution of the new brain wave biofeedback. New York, NY: Grove Press.>More



Schoenberger, N.E., Shiflett, S.C., Esty, M.L., Ochs, L., & Matheis, R.J. (2001). Flexyx neurotherapy system in the treatment of traumatic brain injury: An initial evaluation. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 16(3), 260-274.>More



Stoler, D.R. & Hill, B.A. (2013). Coping with Concussion and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. New York, NY: Penguin Random House.



St. Clair, M. (2008). LENS Case Study: Traumatic Brain Injury From AVM (Arterial Venous Malformation). Neuroconnections, 7(29-30).



White, Christine. (2008). Restoring optimal brain function helps many health problems: ADD, autism, depression, fibromyalgia, anxiety, PTSD, learning disorders, strokes,Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis. Townsend Letter, The Examiner of Alternative Medicine, April 2008.>More



Yasaman Zandi Mehran, Mohammad Firoozabadi, and Reza Rostami. (2015). Improvement of Neurofeedback Therapy for Improved Attention Through Facilitation of Brain Activity Using Local Sinusoidal Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Field Exposure. Clin EEG Neurosci, April 2015; vol. 46, 2: pp. 100-112., first published on June 16, 2014>More



Zeinab Amirifalah, S. Mohammad P. Firoozabadi, and S. Ali Shafiei. (2013). Local Exposure of Brain Central Areas to a Pulsed ELF Magnetic Field for a Purposeful Change in EEG. Clin EEG Neurosci, January 2013; vol. 44, 1: pp. 44-52.




To know more about how to choose the neurofeedback device that fits with you, reads the post What neurofeedback device should I buy?.


Learn more about LENS Neurofeedback by reading the questions and answers that other therapists have already made.



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Gonzalo Belaustegui

I'm co-founder of OchsLabs Europe, LENS distributor for Europe. My academic background was on Business Administration and Management, and on Actuarial Sciences. I have worked for 12 years in the health sector. I have spent the last 5 years among biofeedback, neurofeedback, LENS, qEEG and tDCS devices.